Title, Date, Attachment, Content
[Issue Analysis] Improvement plans to enhance virtual career experiential curriculum
Date 2022-09-26

Hea-Jung Chang

(Employment, Skills Development, and Qualifications Research Division)

Su-Hyun Choi

(Center for HR Trends and Panel Data)

Seung-Rok Hwang

(Center for Career Education Research)

Dong-chan Park

(Employment, Skills Development, and Qualifications Research Division)



Although focused efforts have been made over the past five years to put career experiential curriculum on the right track, discussions on related issues such as regional imbalance and substandard quality are still underway. These issues also have implications for the creation and operation of contactless online career experiential programs as well as platform building. It is vital to accommodate the improvement plans set forth below in developing related policies and operating career experiential curriculum in order to ensure future success in the operation of virtual career experiential programs.


Table 1. Improvement plans to enhance virtual career experiential curriculum (summary)


1.   Improve program operation to reflect differences between face-to-face and

A blended learning approach that integrates the online classroom with the physical classroom elements is being adopted, depending on the circumstances and convenience, in online classes that have been rapidly spreading in schools during the pandemic (Cho, Eun Soon, 2020).

An effective operation of career experience programs run by schools as part of career education requires the understanding of the differences and characteristics of face-to-face and and the redefinition of the roles of learners (students), instructors (teachers), administrative organizations and support offices (career experience support centers), and regulatory and governing bodies (Ministry of Education and Office of Education) as well as teaching methods to cope with the changes in the educational environment. These need to be followed by the establishment of an administrative support framework.


2.   Strengthen operation to incorporate the features of experiential learning-based programs

Schools generally offer career experience programs that include experience-based teaching and learning activities. Well-organized experiential activity tasks can offer robust experiential learning opportunities. Even prior to the pandemic, guest lectures and dialogues conducted with a large audience were the dominant forms of career experiential learning programs offered by schools due to convenience in school administration and difficulty in organizing activities tailored to the diverse needs of students.

To offer high-quality career experiential to students requires the improvement of the current career experiential learning programs in a way to serve the essential purposes of those programs. To this end, a blended learning approach should also be adopted in virtual career experiential learning programs. Various immersive experiential activities can be offered online such as mock workplace experience and workplace simulation by using educational technology employing virtual reality, augmented reality and other latest technologies.


3.   Enhance operation by adopting various types of programs tailored to different school levels

Objectives and goals of career experiential learning curriculum may vary by school levels and career development stages. The type and content of programs schools and districts offer should vary accordingly. The development and operation of career experiential learning programs should take into considerations the types and difficulty levels of activities, school levels, digital literacy of participating students. These factors also need to be considered in creating virtual career experiential learning programs.

 4.   Augment career experiential learning programs with blended learning

Blended learning is a method of teaching that combines two or more learning methods. Online learning enables students to learn through cooperating with students from other classes, schools or countries on the internet, transcending the physical learning environment. (Kim, Hyun Seop, 2020)

On the other hand, online learning presents limitations such as difficulty in providing a sense of presence and the benefits of person-to-person interactions of the in-situ environment. The objective and utility of blended learning are to overcome the temporal and spatial limitations of the physical classroom and reduce anxiety of social isolation and a sense of alienation from contactless online classes. The proper utilization of blended learning is essential in running career experiential learning programs as some of experiential activities such as scientific experiments, practice drills, and crafting can generate desired effects only when conducted in the in-situ environment.

Going forward, schools and districts need to break away from the dichotomous career experiential learning methodology of pursuing either 100% in-person or 100% online learning. Instead, they should actively promote blended learning-based career experiential learning programs by formulating various teaching and learning methods using real-time conference platforms or recorded videos depending on the the objectives and characteristics of classes.


5.   Adopt virtual career experiential learning   programs selectively for the areas where they can generate desired effects

With regards to the operation of virtual career experiential learning programs, schools and districts need to select and focus on the areas of content and types of career experiential learning programs that are more suitable for the online environment, rather than attempting to move every program online.

For example, quality online programs need to be developed and deployed in such areas as experiments that pose safety risks when conducted in the in-situ environment, programs that are costly or are hard to find instructors or mentors for, or programs related to space and medicine that can benefit greatly from the use of virtual reality or metaverse technologies.

In addition, career experience programs conducted in “free learning semesters and academic years” need to be revisited to decide which ones to move online and which ones need a blended-learning approach depending on activity types and effectiveness: guest lectures or dialogue programs can be more effective when conducted online while programs involving practice drills and physical presence can be less effective when moved online.

6.   Offer optimal career experience activities based on digital literacy levels

With the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the era of rapid digital transformation, the ability to use technology and immersive content is emerging as a basic skill to make the most out of career experiential learning programs as well as online learning.

Enhancing digital literacy is essential to generating desired effects of virtual or blended career experiential learning programs. To ensure success in career experientia learningl, it is imperative to educate and train various stakeholders such as students, teachers, mentors, parents, and support center administrators so that they will acquire an essential set of digital skills required to fulfill their respective roles.

7.   Upgrade the virtual career experience service platform

Building the right infrastructure is fundamental to providing online learning and is also an important prerequisite in ensuring its effectiveness and efficiency. As part of this study, focus group interviews were conducted with related professionals asking questions such as how the current online career experiential learning service platform should be improved and what should be the direction of development if a new service platform is to be developed. Key findings derived from the interviews are as follows:

First, “ggoomgil,” the current government-led career experiential learning platform, which acts as a career experiential learning program orchestrator, needs to be improved with the addition of new operation-focused features such as real-time consultations and integration with mobile devices and menu renewal to build a dedicated section for online career experiential learning programs where online activities can be viewed and applied for.

Second, a new platform needs to be built for use in running online programs. YouTube, Zoom and other private sector platforms are not well suited to public education (notices, chat, attendance and student management, etc.), and a new platform should be built to best deliver online career experiential learning programs.

Third, usability and convenience need to be increased through the development of a new metaverse-based platform and mobile applications. There is a need for a free local online service platform to lessen the financial burden of entities that host experience programs for students.


  8.   Offer career experiential learning programs based on Edutech (metaverse, etc.) in response to the advent  of the Fourth Industrial  Revolution

Amid rising demand for career experiential learning programs leveraging new digital technology and online learning with the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, there is a need for exploring new methodologies and operating plans for career experiential learning programs, going beyond the current stage of simply using digital tools.

For example, virtual reality-based career experience using a metaverse platform has been gaining traction since last year amid the rapid spread of COVID-19. Key benefits the metaverse brings to career experiential learning programs are as follows:

First, it reduces the psychological burden that makes learners passive during the learning process, and guarantees freedom and diversity. The mode of learning shifts from learning by hearing to learning by doing. Various forms of learning spaces can be built in the metaverse transcending the limitations of physical spaces.

Furthermore, the distinction between instructors and learners becomes blurry, creating an environment where everyone is engaged in the learning and teaching process simultaneously. This means that there is no clear demarcation in the timing and boundaries of learning and all daily activities can turn into learning opportunities.

The metaverse, which can create surreal immersive experience, is emerging as a viable alternative tool that can overcome the shortcomings and limitations of the conventional online career experiential learning programs. The advantages of applying the metaverse in virtual career experiential learning programs to expand the scope of experiences are as follows:

First, virtual reality and career experiential learning programs technology can be used to increase learning effectiveness by keeping students focused and engaged.

Second, an immersive class environment can be created where students attend virtual class and ask questions through their avatars.

Third, it enables the operation of learner-led career experience and practice programs in a virtual environment through real-time interactions, and allows students to observe how other students are learning.

Fourth, special effects can be used to create a vivid sense of presence and allow students to create User Created Contents with various production tools.

Fifth, various educational materials can be shared freely and easily, and the presence of the physical classroom can be created with a voice and text chat.

However, there are some hurdles to overcome as well. It is not realistic to expect that every student will own a VR headset and be able to use the device well. In this sense, it is essential to develop metaverse-based career experiential learning programs that deliver the advantages of the metaverse as well as well-designed interactive elements and immersive content and that can be used without a VR headset.

In the mid-to-long term, it is vital to develop an integrated metaverse-based platform that combines general career education and career experiential learning programs, which can be used not only in virtual learning but also as a supplement to offline education. New regulations and legislation are needed as well to respond to this shift in the classroom environment.




Kim, Hyun Seop (2020). “Seven Questions Regarding Blended Learning.” URL: Story, May 11, 2021 (search date)

Cho, Eun Soon (2020). “Untact Classes in Post Covid-19: The Roles and Challenges of Educational Technology.” 

Educational Engineering ResearchVol. 36 Special Issue. 693-713. Korea Educational Engineering Association